Windows

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Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems developed by Microsoft since 1983. It currently uses the Windows Explorer shell. The last release of Windows is Windows 10.

History

Early Windows

The hype of 1983

In the early 80s, Microsoft gained popularity for its applications like Word for DOS. But Microsoft was working in something to compete against he Macintosh's friendly user interface. At COMDEX 1983 in November, Microsoft demonstrated a new upcoming product, "Microsoft Windows", running on a personal computer with monochrome graphics, and with various applications running alongside each other in "windows". They really hyped people about it, promising it as the software of the future that will be installed on every PC.

A hard market

After the hype of 1983, they released their product under the name of Windows. Unfortunately it didn't get the success they expected, mostly because it wasn't exactly what was promised to the people. But despite this, Windows found its niche place in the market alongside other shell programs.

Getting shaped

After the excessive hype and a regular market success, Microsoft launched Windows 2.0 in 1987. This version got significant improvements over its predecessor. Examples of this are overlapping windows and Expanded Memory Support (EMS).

Windows in the 90s

Popularity increases

After Windows 2.x, Microsoft decided to release a new version of Windows, Windows 3.0. This version was finally getting a significant user market, becoming Microsoft a serious player in the software industry.

Windows NT

After Microsoft broke its partnership with IBM, they began development of their new own OS. They initially called it NT OS/2, NT standing for New Technologies, while they kept OS/2 in the name due to being based on OS/2. Later, to avoid any copyright issues, they simply called it NT. Some of the goals of this OS were stability, security and portability, last one is a reason why it was heavy compared to their already existing Windows OS (It was programmed in C instead of assembly, thus making it portable yet heavier)

Windows 9x

These were the consumer versions of Windows released in the 90's. These were known for still being based on DOS. The first was Windows 95, which gave its massive success to Microsoft. This release gained popularity and it was becoming a defacto standard on many PCs. Here's where Windows started to really grow, practically monopolizing the market. This leaded to a lawsuit in the late 90s/early 2000.

Versions

If a release is available on the BetaArchive FTP, this ✔ symbol will be next to the release name.

16-bit MS-DOS-based Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows 1.0 1.0x Interface Manager First version of Windows
Windows 2.x 2.x None
Windows 3.x 3.x Sparta, Snowball

16/32-bit hybrid Operating Systems (Monolithic) (on DOS Foundation)

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows 95 4.0 Chicago Start Menu introduced.
Windows Nashville 4.1 Nashville 1 build leaked, Never released
Windows 98 4.1 Memphis
Windows ME 4.9 Millenium

NT Based Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows NT 3.1 NT 3.10 Razzle, NT OS/2
Windows NT 3.5x NT 3.5x Daytona
Microsoft Cairo NT 4.0 Cairo Never released, planned
Windows NT 4.0 Shell Update Release
Windows 2000 NT 5.0 Memphis NT Beta builds was called "NT 5.0"
Windows Neptune NT 5.5 Neptune 1 build leaked, Never released
Windows Triton Unknown Triton Never released
Windows Odyssey NT 6.0 Odyssey Never released
Windows XP NT 5.1 Whistler
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs Eiger, Monch
Windows Embedded 2009 Quebec
Windows Server 2003 NT 5.2 .NET Server Previous Codenames : "Whistler Server"
Windows Home Server Quattro
Windows Longhorn NT 6.0 Longhorn Pre-reset builds, re-named to Windows Vista
Windows Vista Longhorn Omega-13 Code Reset, .NET Server RC1 > 2003 SP1 RC
Windows Server 2008 Longhorn Server
Windows Small Business Server 2008 Cougar
Windows Essential Business Server 2008 Centro
Windows Blackcomb Unknown Blackcomb Originally a major update to Longhorn. Allegedly later renamed to Vienna
Windows 7 NT 6.1 '7'
Windows Server 2008 R2 Server '7'
Windows Embedded 7 Quebec
Windows MultiPoint Server 2010 Solution Server
Windows MultiPoint Server 2011 WMS 2
Windows Small Business Server 2011 SBS 7
Windows Small Business Server 2011 Essentials Aurora
Windows Home Server 2011 Vail
Windows Thin PC Thin PC
Windows 8 NT 6.2 '8' Start menu removed, replaced with start screen
Windows RT Windows on ARM Only available to Microsoft partners.
Windows Server 2012 Server '8'
Windows Embedded 8
Windows 8.1 NT 6.3 Blue
Windows RT 8.1
Windows 8.1 for IoT Blue IoT
Windows Server 2012 R2 Server 'Blue'
Windows Embedded 8.1
Windows Server 2016 NT 10.0 Threshold Server Previous codenames: Server xNext
Windows Server 2019 vNext

Windows 10 Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Update name Build lab Development status Available on FTP?
Windows 10 NT 10.0 Threshold Windows 10 th1 Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 TH2 v1511 Threshold 2 November Update th2_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS1 v1607 Redstone 1 Anniversary Update rs1_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS2 v1703 Redstone 2 Creators Update rs2_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS3 v1709 Redstone 3 Fall Creators Update rs3_release Released
Windows 10 RS4 v1803 Redstone 4 April 2018 Update rs4_release Released
Windows 10 RS5 v1809 Redstone 5 October 2018 Update rs5_release Released
Windows 10 19H1 v1903 19H1 May 2019 Update 19h1_release Released
Windows Server 19H1 Released, Semi-Annual Channel release
Windows 10 19H2 TBD 19H2, Vanadium In development
Windows Server 19H2 In development
Windows 10 20H1 20H1, Vibranium rs_prerelease In development
Windows Server 20H1 In development

Windows CE

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows CE 1.0 1.0 Pegasus, Alder First release. Unsupported as of December 31, 2001
Windows CE 2.0 2.0 Birch Unsupported as of September 30, 2002
Windows CE 3.0 3.0 Cedar, Galileo Unsupported as of October 9, 2007
Windows CE 4.x 4.x Talisker, Jameson, McKendrick Unsupported as of July 10, 2012
Windows CE 5.x 5.x Macallan Unsupported as of October 14, 2014
Windows CE 6.x 6.x Yamazaki Unsupported as of April 10, 2018

Windows Pocket PC

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows PocketPC 2000 2.x Rapier Based on Windows CE 3.0
Windows PocketPC 2002 3.x Merlin Based on Windows CE 3.0

Windows Mobile

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows Mobile 2003 4.x Ozone Based on Windows CE 4.20
Windows Mobile 5 5.x Magneto Based on Windows CE 4.60. Unsupported as of October 13, 2015
Windows Mobile 6 6.x Crossbow Based on Windows CE 5.10

Windows Phone

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows Phone 7 7.0 Windows Phone 7 Unsupported since October 14, 2014, last version based on Windows CE
Windows Phone 7.5 7.5 Mango First major update to Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7.8 7.8 ? The last major update to Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 8 8.0 Windows Phone 8, Portico (GDR1), Blue (8.1) First version to use the NT kernel
Windows Phone 8.1 8.1 Blue First major update to Windows Phone 8
Windows 10 Mobile 10.0 Windows 10 Mobile First version to run the same Windows OS as small tablets and PC; No longer in active development.

See also