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Microsoft KB Archive/252648

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Article ID: 252648

Article Last Modified on 2/22/2007


  • Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Edition

This article was previously published under Q252648


This article describes Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) and Basic Encoding Rules (BER), and clarifies the differences between the two.

Many information technology workers, including seasoned professionals, are often confused about what ASN.1 and BER are, the differences between the two, or even why the distinction is important. Their confusion is understandable when even those people who know ASN.1 and BER well frequently use the terms incorrectly.

Because ASN.1 is the language of standards, it is very common to find standards recommendations written in ASN.1. Support professionals, consultants, and information technology specialists alike benefit from knowing ASN.1 because it allows them to dig deep into the standards and to decode and understand the content of the data that they troubleshoot. The most common standards written in ASN.1 are those produced by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). However, members of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) are increasingly using ASN.1 to succinctly state their recommendations. ASN.1 says in one page what otherwise takes five or six pages to write out in some other format.

The following is a list of commonly used standards that are written in ASN.1:

  • X.400 (Electronic Messaging)
  • X.500 (Directory Services)
  • X.200 (Network communications)
  • Request for Comments (RFCs) 2251-2256 (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP)
  • Too many other RFCs to mention

Any computer or data communications specialists who wishes to really set themselves apart need to have at least a basic understanding of ASN.1 and BER. Because both Microsoft Windows 2000 and Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server implement the above-mentioned standards in one form or another, fluency in reading and understanding ASN.1 and BER makes troubleshooting those two products that much easier.



Abstract Syntax Notation One (more commonly known as ASN.1) is a language for defining standards without regard to the implementation. It is the language of standards writers. When John Smith at CalTech wants to write a recommendation for standardizing the procedures that one component follows for talking to another component, he writes the recommendation in ASN.1 notation, and submits the recommendation to a standards body such as the ITU. ASN.1 facilitates communication between professionals and committee members by offering a common language for describing a standard. ASN.1 is defined in ITU-T Recommendations X.209 and X.690.

For example, ASN.1 defines:

  • What a "type" is.
  • What a "module" is and how it should look.
  • What an INTEGER is.
  • What a BOOLEAN is.
  • What a "structured type" is.
  • What certain keywords mean (for example, BEGIN, END, IMPORT, EXPORT, EXTERNAL, and so on).
  • How to "tag" a type so that it can be properly encoded.

ASN.1 has no regard to any specific standard, encoding method, programming language, or hardware platform. It is simply a language for defining standards. Or in other words, standards are written in ASN.1.


BER (pronounced "burr") is the common name for the Basic Encoding Rules of ASN.1. BER is defined in ITU-T Recommendations X.209 and X.690. BER is one set of rules for encoding ASN.1 data to a stream of octets that can be transmitted over a communications link. Other methods of encoding ASN.1 data include Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), and Packing Encoding Rules (PER). Each encoding method has its application, but BER tends to be the encoding method most commonly used and most commonly talked about.

BER defines:

  • Methods for encoding ASN.1 values.
  • Rules for deciding when to use a given method.
  • The format of specific octets in the data.

Contrasting ASN.1 and BER

ASN.1 is like a programming language (such as C), whereas BER is like a compiler for that language. Compilers are platform-specific, whereas many high-level programming languages are not. C defines the rules and language for writing a program. A program is not C; it is written in C. The program is not useful until it is compiled for a specific platform (such as Intel x86). So it is with ASN.1 and BER. ASN.1 is the language for writing a standard. A standard is not ASN.1; it is written in ASN.1. Data which is generated from a program that complies with the standard may loosely be termed "ASN.1 data." ASN.1 data is not useful (that is, it cannot be transmitted across a LAN) until the ASN.1 data is encoded into a stream of octets which can be easily decoded at the destination. To illustrate, the following is an example of these concepts derived from ITU-T Recommendation X.209, Appendix I. This is an informal description of a personnel data record:

   Name:             John P Smith
   Date of Birth:    17 July 1959
   (other data)

The ASN.1 description of a personnel record (the standard) might be:

   PersonnelRecord ::= [APPLICATION 0] IMPLICIT SET {
       title [0]       VisibleString,
       dateOfBirth [1]          Date,
       (other types defined)          }

       givenName       VisibleString,
       initial         VisibleString, 
       familyName      VisibleString  }

This ASN.1 description describes what a PersonnelRecord looks like. But more importantly, it describes how application data should be formatted so that it becomes ASN.1 data before encoding takes place.

Next, the application maps the personnel data into the personnel record structure (ASN.1 data format), and then applies the Basic Encoding Rules (BER) to the ASN.1 data. This is what it might look like (with the exception that the names would be converted to ASCII):

  Record     Length   Contents
  60         8185
                      Name     Length  Contents
                      61       10
                                       VisibleString  Length  Contents
                                       1A             04      "John"
                                       VisibleString  Length  Contents
                                       1A             01      "P"
                                       VisibleString  Length  Contents
                                       1A             05      "Smith"

                       DateofBirth     Length  Contents
                       A0              0A
                                               Date    Length  Contents
                                               43      08      "19590717"

When all is said and done, what actually gets transmitted (or more specifically, what becomes the data portion for the packet at the next layer down) is:

60 81 85 61 10 1A 04 ....
....  0A 43 08 19 59 07 17


For more information on ASN.1, consult ITU-T Recommendation X.680 through 683.
For more information on BER, consult the recommendation itself (ITU-T Recommendation X.690 or X.691).

For more information, read "Changing from ASN.1:1988 to ASN.1:2002" on the ITU-T Study Group 17 Web page:

Keywords: kbinfo KB252648