Difference between revisions of "Windows"

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'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. It currently uses the [[Windows Explorer]] shell. The last release of Windows is [[Windows 10]].
 +
 
 +
== History ==
 +
=== Early Windows ===
 +
==== The hype of 1983 ====
 +
In the early 80s, Microsoft gained popularity for its applications like Word for DOS. But Microsoft was working in something to compete against he Macintosh's friendly user interface.
 +
At COMDEX 1983 in November, Microsoft demonstrated a new upcoming product, "Microsoft Windows", running on a personal computer with monochrome graphics, and with
 +
various applications running alongside each other in "windows". They really hyped people about it, promising it as the software of the future that will be installed on every PC.
 +
==== A hard market ====
 +
After the hype of 1983, they released their product under the name of Windows. Unfortunately it didn't get the success they expected, mostly because it wasn't exactly what was promised to the people. But despite this, Windows found its niche place in the market alongside other shell programs.
 +
==== Getting shaped ====
 +
After the excessive hype and a regular market success, Microsoft launched [[Windows 2.x|Windows 2.0]] in 1987. This version got significant improvements over its predecessor. Examples of this are overlapping windows and Expanded Memory Support (EMS).
 +
=== Windows in the 90s ===
 +
==== Popularity increases ====
 +
After Windows 2.x, Microsoft decided to release a new version of Windows, [[Windows 3.x#Windows 3.0|Windows 3.0]]. This version was finally getting a significant user market, becoming [[Microsoft]] a serious player in the software industry.
 +
==== Windows NT ====
 +
After Microsoft broke its partnership with IBM, they began development of their new own OS. They initially called it NT OS/2, NT standing for New Technologies, while they kept OS/2 in the name due to being based on OS/2. Later, to avoid any copyright issues, they simply called it NT. Some of the goals of this OS were stability, security and portability, last one is a reason why it was heavy compared to their already existing Windows OS (It was programmed in C instead of assembly, thus making it portable yet heavier)
 +
==== Windows 9x ====
 +
These were the consumer versions of Windows released in the 90's. These were known for still being based on [[MS-DOS|DOS]]. The first was [[Windows 95]], which gave its massive success to Microsoft. This release gained popularity and it was becoming a defacto standard on many PCs. Here's where Windows started to really grow, practically monopolizing the market. This leaded to a lawsuit in the late 90s/early 2000.
 +
 
 +
== Versions ==
 +
'''If a release is available on the BetaArchive FTP, this ✔ symbol will be next to the release name.'''
 +
<table class="wikitable" style="width:100%">
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>16-bit MS-DOS-based Operating Systems</h3></th>
 +
<tr>
 +
  <th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 1.0]]</td>
 +
<td>1.0x</td>
 +
<td>Interface Manager</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First version of Windows</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 2.x]]</td>
 +
<td>2.x</td>
 +
<td>None</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 3.x]]</td>
 +
<td>3.x</td>
 +
<td>Sparta, Snowball</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
 
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>16/32-bit hybrid Operating Systems (Monolithic) (on DOS Foundation)</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 95]]</td>
 +
<td>4.0</td>
 +
<td>Chicago</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Start menu introduced.</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Nashville|Windows ''Nashville'']]</td>
 +
<td>4.1</td>
 +
<td>Nashville</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">1 build leaked. Cancelled release.</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 98]]</td>
 +
<td>4.1</td>
 +
<td>Memphis</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows ME]]</td>
 +
<td>4.9</td>
 +
<td>Millenium</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>NT Based Operating Systems</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows NT 3.1]]</td>
 +
<td>NT 3.10</td>
 +
<td>Razzle, NT OS/2</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows NT 3.5x]]</td>
 +
<td>NT 3.5x</td>
 +
<td>Daytona</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Microsoft Cairo]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">NT 4.0</td>
 +
<td>Cairo</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Cancelled release., planned</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows NT 4.0]]</td>
 +
<td>Shell Update Release</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 2000]]</td>
 +
<td>NT 5.0</td>
 +
<td>None</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Although the IA-64 release had the codename "Janus", the original release didn't have a codename and was simply called as "NT 5.0" in pre-release builds before build 1946</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Neptune|Windows ''Neptune'']]</td>
 +
<td>NT 5.5</td>
 +
<td>Neptune</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">1 build leaked. Cancelled release.</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Triton|Windows ''Triton'']]</td>
 +
<td>Unknown</td>
 +
<td>Triton</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Cancelled release.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Odyssey|Windows ''Odyssey'']]</td>
 +
<td>NT 6.0</td>
 +
<td>Odyssey</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Cancelled release.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows XP]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="3">NT 5.1</td>
 +
<td>Whistler</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs]]</td>
 +
<td>Eiger, Monch</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Embedded 2009]]</td>
 +
<td>Quebec</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2003]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">NT 5.2</td>
 +
<td>.NET Server</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Previous Codenames&#160;: "Whistler Server"</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Home Server]]</td>
 +
<td>Quattro</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Longhorn|Windows ''Longhorn'']]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="5">NT 6.0</td>
 +
<td>Longhorn</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Pre-reset builds, re-named to Windows Vista</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Vista]]</td>
 +
<td>Longhorn Omega-13</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Code Reset, .NET Server RC1 &gt; 2003 SP1 RC</td>
 +
<td>✔</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2008]]</td>
 +
<td>Longhorn Server</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Small Business Server 2008]]</td>
 +
<td>Cougar</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Essential Business Server 2008]]</td>
 +
<td>Centro</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>''[[Windows Blackcomb]]''</td>
 +
<td>Unknown</td>
 +
<td>Blackcomb</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Originally a major update to Longhorn. Allegedly later renamed to Vienna</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 7]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="9">NT 6.1</td>
 +
<td>'7'</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2008 R2]]</td>
 +
<td>Server '7'</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Embedded 7]]</td>
 +
<td>Quebec</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows MultiPoint Server 2010]]</td>
 +
<td>Solution Server</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows MultiPoint Server 2011]]</td>
 +
<td>WMS 2</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Small Business Server 2011]]</td>
 +
<td>SBS 7</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Small Business Server 2011 Essentials]]</td>
 +
<td>Aurora</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Home Server 2011]]</td>
 +
<td>Vail</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Thin PC]]</td>
 +
<td>Thin PC</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 8]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="4">NT 6.2</td>
 +
<td>'8'</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Start menu removed, replaced with start screen</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows RT]]</td>
 +
<td>Windows on ARM</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Only available to Microsoft partners.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2012]]</td>
 +
<td>Server '8'</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Embedded 8]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 8.1]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="5">NT 6.3</td>
 +
<td>Blue</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows RT 8.1]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 8.1 for IoT]]</td>
 +
<td>Blue IoT</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2012 R2]]</td>
 +
<td>Server 'Blue'</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Embedded 8.1]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2016]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">NT 10.0</td>
 +
<td>Threshold Server</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Previous codenames: Server xNext</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 2019]]</td>
 +
<td>vNext</td>
 +
<td colspan="3"></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>Windows 10 Operating Systems</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th>Update name</th>
 +
<th>Build lab</th>
 +
<th>Development status</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10]]</td>
 +
<td>NT 10.0</td>
 +
<td>Threshold</td>
 +
<td>Windows 10</td>
 +
<td>th1</td>
 +
<td>Released, no longer supported.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 TH2]]</td>
 +
<td>v1511</td>
 +
<td>Threshold 2</td>
 +
<td>November Update</td>
 +
<td>th2_release</td>
 +
<td>Released, no longer supported.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 RS1]]</td>
 +
<td>v1607</td>
 +
<td>Redstone 1</td>
 +
<td>Anniversary Update</td>
 +
<td>rs1_release</td>
 +
<td>Released, no longer supported.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 RS2]]</td>
 +
<td>v1703</td>
 +
<td>Redstone 2</td>
 +
<td>Creators Update</td>
 +
<td>rs2_release</td>
 +
<td>Released, no longer supported.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 RS3]]</td>
 +
<td>v1709</td>
 +
<td>Redstone 3</td>
 +
<td>Fall Creators Update</td>
 +
<td>rs3_release</td>
 +
<td>Released</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 RS4]]</td>
 +
<td>v1803</td>
 +
<td>Redstone 4</td>
 +
<td>April 2018 Update</td>
 +
<td>rs4_release</td>
 +
<td>Released</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 RS5]]</td>
 +
<td>v1809</td>
 +
<td>Redstone 5</td>
 +
<td>October 2018 Update</td>
 +
<td>rs5_release</td>
 +
<td>Released</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 19H1]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">v1903</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">19H1</td>
 +
<td>May 2019 Update</td>
 +
<td>19h1_release</td>
 +
<td>Released</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 19H1]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td>Released, Semi-Annual Channel release</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>''[[Windows 10 19H2]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="4">TBD</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">19H2, Vanadium</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td>In development</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 19H2]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td>In development</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 20H1]]</td>
 +
<td rowspan="2">20H1, Vibranium</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td>rs_prerelease</td>
 +
<td>In development</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Server 20H1]]</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
<td>In development</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>Windows CE</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 1.0]]</td>
 +
<td>1.0</td>
 +
<td>Pegasus, Alder</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First release. Unsupported as of December 31, 2001</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 2.0]]</td>
 +
<td>2.0</td>
 +
<td>Birch</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported as of September 30, 2002</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 3.0]]</td>
 +
<td>3.0</td>
 +
<td>Cedar, Galileo</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported as of October 9, 2007</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 4.x]]</td>
 +
<td>4.x</td>
 +
<td>Talisker, Jameson, McKendrick</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported as of July 10, 2012</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 5.x]]</td>
 +
<td>5.x</td>
 +
<td>Macallan</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported as of October 14, 2014</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows CE 6.x]]</td>
 +
<td>6.x</td>
 +
<td>Yamazaki</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported as of April 10, 2018</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>Windows Pocket PC</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows PocketPC 2000]]</td>
 +
<td>2.x</td>
 +
<td>Rapier</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Based on Windows CE 3.0</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows PocketPC 2002]]</td>
 +
<td>3.x</td>
 +
<td>Merlin</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Based on Windows CE 3.0</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>Windows Mobile</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Mobile 2003]]</td>
 +
<td>4.x</td>
 +
<td>Ozone</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Based on Windows CE 4.20</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Mobile 5]]</td>
 +
<td>5.x</td>
 +
<td>Magneto</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Based on Windows CE 4.60. Unsupported as of October 13, 2015</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Mobile 6]]</td>
 +
<td>6.x</td>
 +
<td>Crossbow</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Based on Windows CE 5.10</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th colspan="7"><h3>Windows Phone</h3></th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<th>Trade name</th>
 +
<th>Version</th>
 +
<th>Codename</th>
 +
<th colspan="3">Additional information</th>
 +
<th>Available on FTP?</th>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Phone 7]]</td>
 +
<td>7.0</td>
 +
<td>Windows Phone 7</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">Unsupported since October 14, 2014, last version based on Windows CE</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Phone 7.5]]</td>
 +
<td>7.5</td>
 +
<td>Mango</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First major update to Windows Phone 7</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Phone 7.8]]</td>
 +
<td>7.8</td>
 +
<td>?</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">The last major update to Windows Phone 7</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Phone 8]]</td>
 +
<td>8.0</td>
 +
<td>Windows Phone 8, Portico (GDR1), Blue (8.1) </td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First version to use the NT kernel</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows Phone 8.1]]</td>
 +
<td>8.1</td>
 +
<td>Blue</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First major update to Windows Phone 8</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>[[Windows 10 Mobile]]</td>
 +
<td>10.0</td>
 +
<td>Windows 10 Mobile</td>
 +
<td colspan="3">First version to run the same Windows OS as small tablets and PC. No longer in active development.</td>
 +
<td></td>
 +
</tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
 +
* [[Windows Explorer]]
 +
* [[MS-DOS]]
 +
* [[Windows Crash Screens]]
 +
* [[Windows/Visual Styles|Visual Styles]]
 +
* [[Windows Source Code]]
 +
* [[Windows Sidebar]]
 +
* [[Desktop Composition Engine|Desktop Composition Engine (Longhorn)]]
 +
* [[Desktop Window Manager]]
 +
* [[WinFS|WinFS (Windows Future Storage)]]
 +
* [[Boot.ini]]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Operating Systems]]

Latest revision as of 14:39, 13 September 2019

Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems developed by Microsoft since 1983. It currently uses the Windows Explorer shell. The last release of Windows is Windows 10.

History

Early Windows

The hype of 1983

In the early 80s, Microsoft gained popularity for its applications like Word for DOS. But Microsoft was working in something to compete against he Macintosh's friendly user interface. At COMDEX 1983 in November, Microsoft demonstrated a new upcoming product, "Microsoft Windows", running on a personal computer with monochrome graphics, and with various applications running alongside each other in "windows". They really hyped people about it, promising it as the software of the future that will be installed on every PC.

A hard market

After the hype of 1983, they released their product under the name of Windows. Unfortunately it didn't get the success they expected, mostly because it wasn't exactly what was promised to the people. But despite this, Windows found its niche place in the market alongside other shell programs.

Getting shaped

After the excessive hype and a regular market success, Microsoft launched Windows 2.0 in 1987. This version got significant improvements over its predecessor. Examples of this are overlapping windows and Expanded Memory Support (EMS).

Windows in the 90s

Popularity increases

After Windows 2.x, Microsoft decided to release a new version of Windows, Windows 3.0. This version was finally getting a significant user market, becoming Microsoft a serious player in the software industry.

Windows NT

After Microsoft broke its partnership with IBM, they began development of their new own OS. They initially called it NT OS/2, NT standing for New Technologies, while they kept OS/2 in the name due to being based on OS/2. Later, to avoid any copyright issues, they simply called it NT. Some of the goals of this OS were stability, security and portability, last one is a reason why it was heavy compared to their already existing Windows OS (It was programmed in C instead of assembly, thus making it portable yet heavier)

Windows 9x

These were the consumer versions of Windows released in the 90's. These were known for still being based on DOS. The first was Windows 95, which gave its massive success to Microsoft. This release gained popularity and it was becoming a defacto standard on many PCs. Here's where Windows started to really grow, practically monopolizing the market. This leaded to a lawsuit in the late 90s/early 2000.

Versions

If a release is available on the BetaArchive FTP, this ✔ symbol will be next to the release name.

16-bit MS-DOS-based Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows 1.0 1.0x Interface Manager First version of Windows
Windows 2.x 2.x None
Windows 3.x 3.x Sparta, Snowball

16/32-bit hybrid Operating Systems (Monolithic) (on DOS Foundation)

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows 95 4.0 Chicago Start menu introduced.
Windows Nashville 4.1 Nashville 1 build leaked. Cancelled release.
Windows 98 4.1 Memphis
Windows ME 4.9 Millenium

NT Based Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows NT 3.1 NT 3.10 Razzle, NT OS/2
Windows NT 3.5x NT 3.5x Daytona
Microsoft Cairo NT 4.0 Cairo Cancelled release., planned
Windows NT 4.0 Shell Update Release
Windows 2000 NT 5.0 None Although the IA-64 release had the codename "Janus", the original release didn't have a codename and was simply called as "NT 5.0" in pre-release builds before build 1946
Windows Neptune NT 5.5 Neptune 1 build leaked. Cancelled release.
Windows Triton Unknown Triton Cancelled release.
Windows Odyssey NT 6.0 Odyssey Cancelled release.
Windows XP NT 5.1 Whistler
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs Eiger, Monch
Windows Embedded 2009 Quebec
Windows Server 2003 NT 5.2 .NET Server Previous Codenames : "Whistler Server"
Windows Home Server Quattro
Windows Longhorn NT 6.0 Longhorn Pre-reset builds, re-named to Windows Vista
Windows Vista Longhorn Omega-13 Code Reset, .NET Server RC1 > 2003 SP1 RC
Windows Server 2008 Longhorn Server
Windows Small Business Server 2008 Cougar
Windows Essential Business Server 2008 Centro
Windows Blackcomb Unknown Blackcomb Originally a major update to Longhorn. Allegedly later renamed to Vienna
Windows 7 NT 6.1 '7'
Windows Server 2008 R2 Server '7'
Windows Embedded 7 Quebec
Windows MultiPoint Server 2010 Solution Server
Windows MultiPoint Server 2011 WMS 2
Windows Small Business Server 2011 SBS 7
Windows Small Business Server 2011 Essentials Aurora
Windows Home Server 2011 Vail
Windows Thin PC Thin PC
Windows 8 NT 6.2 '8' Start menu removed, replaced with start screen
Windows RT Windows on ARM Only available to Microsoft partners.
Windows Server 2012 Server '8'
Windows Embedded 8
Windows 8.1 NT 6.3 Blue
Windows RT 8.1
Windows 8.1 for IoT Blue IoT
Windows Server 2012 R2 Server 'Blue'
Windows Embedded 8.1
Windows Server 2016 NT 10.0 Threshold Server Previous codenames: Server xNext
Windows Server 2019 vNext

Windows 10 Operating Systems

Trade name Version Codename Update name Build lab Development status Available on FTP?
Windows 10 NT 10.0 Threshold Windows 10 th1 Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 TH2 v1511 Threshold 2 November Update th2_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS1 v1607 Redstone 1 Anniversary Update rs1_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS2 v1703 Redstone 2 Creators Update rs2_release Released, no longer supported.
Windows 10 RS3 v1709 Redstone 3 Fall Creators Update rs3_release Released
Windows 10 RS4 v1803 Redstone 4 April 2018 Update rs4_release Released
Windows 10 RS5 v1809 Redstone 5 October 2018 Update rs5_release Released
Windows 10 19H1 v1903 19H1 May 2019 Update 19h1_release Released
Windows Server 19H1 Released, Semi-Annual Channel release
Windows 10 19H2 TBD 19H2, Vanadium In development
Windows Server 19H2 In development
Windows 10 20H1 20H1, Vibranium rs_prerelease In development
Windows Server 20H1 In development

Windows CE

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows CE 1.0 1.0 Pegasus, Alder First release. Unsupported as of December 31, 2001
Windows CE 2.0 2.0 Birch Unsupported as of September 30, 2002
Windows CE 3.0 3.0 Cedar, Galileo Unsupported as of October 9, 2007
Windows CE 4.x 4.x Talisker, Jameson, McKendrick Unsupported as of July 10, 2012
Windows CE 5.x 5.x Macallan Unsupported as of October 14, 2014
Windows CE 6.x 6.x Yamazaki Unsupported as of April 10, 2018

Windows Pocket PC

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows PocketPC 2000 2.x Rapier Based on Windows CE 3.0
Windows PocketPC 2002 3.x Merlin Based on Windows CE 3.0

Windows Mobile

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows Mobile 2003 4.x Ozone Based on Windows CE 4.20
Windows Mobile 5 5.x Magneto Based on Windows CE 4.60. Unsupported as of October 13, 2015
Windows Mobile 6 6.x Crossbow Based on Windows CE 5.10

Windows Phone

Trade name Version Codename Additional information Available on FTP?
Windows Phone 7 7.0 Windows Phone 7 Unsupported since October 14, 2014, last version based on Windows CE
Windows Phone 7.5 7.5 Mango First major update to Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7.8 7.8 ? The last major update to Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 8 8.0 Windows Phone 8, Portico (GDR1), Blue (8.1) First version to use the NT kernel
Windows Phone 8.1 8.1 Blue First major update to Windows Phone 8
Windows 10 Mobile 10.0 Windows 10 Mobile First version to run the same Windows OS as small tablets and PC. No longer in active development.

See also