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Microsoft KB Archive/104246

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Causes of L2023: Entry WEP : Export Imported

Article ID: 104246

Article Last Modified on 12/1/2003


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  • Microsoft C/C++ Professional Development System 7.0
  • Microsoft Visual C++ 1.0 Professional Edition

This article was previously published under Q104246


When building a dynamic-link library (DLL) with Visual C++, the following linker error can occur:

L2023 : entry WEP : export imported


This error is usually caused by linking with a third-party DLL's import library that publicly exports its WEP (Windows exit procedure) routine.


Although removing the lines


from your .DEF file may avoid the error, this method is not recommended because there can be problems with Windows calling the WEP (either your own or the WEP provided by the DLL run-time library) when your DLL is unloaded.

As stated, the most common cause of this error is linking with another DLL's import library that was built to publicly export a WEP function. If you are linking your DLL with other third-party or in-house import libraries, you may want to examine them closely. If some of these import libraries are yours, you can modify the way they are built so that they don't put their WEP routines into the import library.

Either of the following steps will cause a DLL's exported WEP not to be added to its import library:

  • Build the import library using the IMPLIB switch /NOWEP. The /NOWEP switch causes IMPLIB not to attempt to put a DLL's WEP function into the import library it is creating. This is the default when building a DLL with Visual C++ 1.0. This is described in IMPLIB.WRI, in the Visual C++ Tech Notes. -or-

  • In the DLL's .DEF file, specify the WEP as PRIVATE, using the following syntax:


    This will cause the WEP of the DLL to be exported, but will make IMPLIB ignore it, so it shouldn't conflict with anything else. This is described in the Visual C++ MSCOPTS.HLP file, which can be reached from the Visual C++ Professional Edition's Integrated Development Environment (IDE) by selecting Help, Build Tools, Module-Definition File Statements, EXPORTS, PRIVATE.

If you do not have control over the way the other DLLs are built, then you have a few other options:

  • Attempt to obtain (from the DLL's developers) an import library without a publicly exported WEP. -or-

  • Use the IMPLIB utility with the /NOWEP switch on the DLL you are linking to, to create a new import library without a WEP in it. If you do this, first make a backup copy of the import library. -or-

  • Specify the WEP of the DLL you are building as PRIVATE, as described above. This will cause the WEP of THIS DLL to be ignored by IMPLIB, so it shouldn't conflict with anything else. This probably won't work around the L2023 error, however.

You should also make sure that you are linking with /NOE /NOD (no extended dictionary and no default libraries). You should also be linking your libraries in the following order:

Windows libraries, C run-time libraries, third-party DLLs

This ensures that the correct WEP is pulled in from the Windows C run-time libraries (libraries matching the pattern xDLLCEW.LIB).

NOTE: It is not recommended that you create your own WEP, rather than exporting the default WEP. DLL termination code should be in an _WEP routine, which the default WEP will call. This is described on page 119 and 120 of the Visual C++ 1.0 "Programming Techniques" manual, and on page 27 and 28 of the Visual C++ 1.0 "C/C++ Version 7.0 Update" manual.

If for some reason you must use your own WEP routine, you may want to examine WEP.ASM in the \MSVC\SOURCE\WIN directory. This is the source for the default WEP that is pulled in from the C run-time libraries. In such a WEP, if your application is a C++ application, you need to make sure to call all destructors of global class objects.

If you are creating a Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) libraries version 2.0 DLL, then you can override the CWinApp::ExitInstance() member function to do your termination processing.

Additional query words: kbinf 1.00 technote

Keywords: kb16bitonly KB104246