Microsoft KB Archive/100659
Article ID: 100659
Article Last Modified on 12/8/2005
- Microsoft Visual C++ 1.0 Professional Edition
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This article was previously published under Q100659
In the Win32 operating system, an application is not required to export callback functions. In 16-bit Windows 3.1 and prior versions, an application must export callback functions primarily to allow them to fix up references to global data and to ensure that any required EMS memory is available. Neither of these situations applies to applications running under the Windows NT 32-bit operating system.
It is necessary to export a function to make it available to the GetProcAddress() function (for dynamic linking) or to list it in an import library (for static linking). Either of these linking methods require information about the function name or ordinal number. Exporting the function places the name or ordinal number into the application's exported entry points table and allows Windows to determine the associated address at run time.
The loader performs load-time linking by looking up the imported entry points an application requires to load. Typically, it looks up this information by ordinal number. An application performs dynamic linking with the GetProcAddress() function which instructs the system to look up the desired function in the desired dynamic-link library (DLL) exports table by ordinal number or by name. It is not necessary to export functions in the Win32 application programming interface (API).
In 16-bit Windows, the linker automatically fixes exported entries to load the appropriate value into the DS register. Exporting an entry in Win32 simply adds the entry to the application's exported names and ordinal numbers table; the linker need not "fix" them. To maintain source code compatibility with 16-bit Windows, you may want to continue using the MakeProcInstance() function and exporting all callback functions.
The following table summarizes this information:
Function Type Windows 3.x (16-bit Windows) Windows NT (Win32) Callback Exported or MakeProcInstance Address of fn() * GetProcAddress Must be exported Must be exported Static linking Must be exported Must be exported
- Because the MakeProcInstance() macro has no effect, it works as well.
Additional query words: exporting vcnt
Keywords: kbhowto kbinfo kbarttypeinf KB100659